How does Valium work
- Valium is a brand (trade) name for diazepam.
- Diazepam is used for the short-term treatment of anxiety and seizure disorders. Diazepam is thought to work by enhancing the effects of GABA, which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter.
- Valium belongs to the class of medicines known as benzodiazepines.
- May be used for the short-term relief of anxiety.
- May also be used to relieve symptoms associated with alcohol withdrawal.
- May be used in addition to other treatments to relieve muscle spasm due to inflammation, trauma, or conditions such as cerebral palsy or paraplegia.
- Can also be used in the treatment of prolonged seizures in conjunction with other anti-seizure medications.
- Valium is available as a generic under the name diazepam.
If you are between the ages of 18 and 60, take no other medication or have no other medical conditions, side effects you are more likely to experience include:
- Drowsiness, muscle weakness, and unsteadiness when standing; all of which may contribute to an increased risk of falls.
- May also cause confusion, depression, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, blurred vision and low blood pressure.
- Amnesia (loss of short-term memory) is more likely to occur at higher dosages and has been associated with antisocial behavior.
- May impair reaction skills and affect a person’s ability to drive or operate machinery. Alcohol should be avoided because it can enhance the sedative effect.
- Valium is addictive and may cause emotional and physical dependence. It also carries a high potential for abuse.
- Withdrawal symptoms (including convulsions, tremor, cramps, vomiting, sweating, or insomnia) may occur with abrupt discontinuation of extended therapy; taper off slowly under a doctor’s supervision.
- Valium should not be used during pregnancy because it has been associated with an increased risk of birth defects. Valium is incompatible with breastfeeding.
- Paradoxical reactions (the opposite of what is expected), such as worsening of insomnia, aggressiveness, hallucinations, extroversion, and rage have been reported, mainly in people with other mental health concerns.
- May interact with several other medicines, including other drugs that have sedation as a side effect. See prescribing information for a full list of interactions.
- May not be suitable for some people including those with respiratory disease, kidney or liver disease, psychiatric illness, or those with a history of substance abuse or addictive disorders.
Notes: In general, seniors or children, people with certain medical conditions (such as liver or kidney problems, heart disease, diabetes, seizures) or people who take other medications are more at risk of developing a wider range of side effects.
- Avoid operating machinery, driving, or performing tasks that require mental alertness while taking this medicine.
- Valium may be given as split doses, with the largest dose just before bedtime.
- Grapefruit juice or grapefruit products may increase blood levels of Valium; avoid concurrent use.
- Valium can increase your risk of falls, particularly if you need to get up in the middle of the night to go to the toilet. Remove any fall hazards from your house (such as loose rugs) and slowly get out of bed when getting up in the middle of the night.
- Avoid alcohol while taking this medicine.
- Use the lowest effective dose of Valium that has been prescribed for you. Do not increase the dosage without your doctor’s advice.
- Withdrawal symptoms (blurred vision, insomnia, sweating, rarely seizures) may occur if long-term Valium is stopped abruptly; discontinue slowly on a doctor’s advice.
- Paradoxical reactions (the opposite of what is expected), such as over-excitation, anxiety, hallucinations, insomnia, and rage have been reported. Seek medical advice if these occur.
- Talk to your doctor or pharmacist before buying other medications over the counter to check that they are compatible with Valium.
Response and Effectiveness
- The peak effect of Valium is seen within 1 to 1.5 hours in most people.
- Valium is metabolized into active metabolites so its effects may last for more than 24 hours and extend with repeated dosing as the drug and its metabolites accumulate in the body.
Dosage should be individualized for maximum beneficial effect. While the usual daily dosages given below will meet the needs of most patients, there will be some who may require higher doses. In such cases dosage should be increased cautiously to avoid adverse effects.
|ADULTS:||USUAL DAILY DOSE:|
|Management of Anxiety Disorders and Relief of Symptoms of Anxiety.||Depending upon severity of symptoms—2 mg to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times daily|
|Symptomatic Relief in Acute Alcohol Withdrawal.||10 mg, 3 or 4 times during the first 24 hours, reducing to 5 mg, 3 or 4 times daily as needed|
|Adjunctively for Relief of Skeletal Muscle Spasm.||2 mg to 10 mg, 3 or 4 times daily|
|Adjunctively in Convulsive Disorders.||2 mg to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times daily|
|Geriatric Patients,or in the presence of debilitating disease.||2 mg to 2.5 mg, 1 or 2 times daily initially; increase gradually as needed and tolerated|
|Because of varied responses to CNS-acting drugs, initiate therapy with lowest dose and increase as required. Not for use in pediatric patients under 6 months.||1 mg to 2.5 mg, 3 or 4 times daily initially; increase gradually as needed and tolerated|